&Beyond is the real deal in conservation, with a proven track record of reversing local extinctions, spearheading innovative research and driving policy through innovation.
Beginning with our groundbreaking conservation achievements during the original restocking of Phinda Private Game Reserve, &Beyond has continued to take part in a number of conservation successes. Our approach to the creation of this reserve, from the underlying conservation issues to its interaction with the community, would prove to be the foundation on which all our subsequent projects were to be built. Since then we have embarked on a variety of pioneering conservation initiatives, both in Africa and beyond, and in line with our strategy of focussed endangered species protection.
Care of the Wildlife initiatives
Ader’s duiker at &Beyond Mnemba Island in Zanzibar
The rarest antelope species in Africa, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) estimates that there are between 300 and 600 Ader’s duiker remaining in the wild. In 2005 five of these …
The rarest antelope species in Africa, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) estimates that there are between 300 and 600 Ader’s duiker remaining in the wild. In 2005 five of these antelope were introduced to &Beyond Mnemba Island, the ideal location for a breeding project due to having no natural predators and a good supply of food. Between 2005 and 2013, the duiker have tripled their number, with a population of 15 now living on the island.
Notoriously secretive, Mnemba is believed to be one of the only places in the world where these little animals can be spotted in the wild. Working with WCS, &Beyond has collected information on the duikers’ diet and behaviour and we hope that this will allow us to improve the breeding programme, leading to a further increase in the numbers of the species.
&Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve is renowned for some of the best cheetah sightings in South Africa. This most elegant and graceful of all cats was reintroduced to the land …
&Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve is renowned for some of the best cheetah sightings in South Africa. This most elegant and graceful of all cats was reintroduced to the land in 1992, when five males and four females were brought in from Namibia. The reintroduction was carefully timed in order to give the cheetah time to settle before lion where brought into the reserve, the first time the two species had been successfully reintroduced into the same area. Since then, the cheetah have not only survived but thrived and Phinda now boasts South Africa’s fourth largest and most important cheetah population. Between 1992 and 2013, the reserve has seen 70 litters being born, with a total of 124 cubs. As a result of this healthy increase in the cheetah population, 53 animals have been relocated to other reserves countrywide in order to boost other populations while keeping Phinda’s cheetah numbers at optimal levels for the land size. The reserve’s cheetah are highly sought after, as they respect electric fences, are aware of lions and are habituated to game viewing vehicles.
The most intensively monitored and researched cheetah in South Africa, the population has been actively monitored since 2008, with additional males brought in to diversify bloodlines.
&Beyond Mnemba Island marine conservation area
&Beyond Mnemba Island is known for its coral atoll, which supports a variety of reef fish and other marine life. In 2005, &Beyond worked with the Zanzibar Department of Fisheries and members of …
&Beyond Mnemba Island is known for its coral atoll, which supports a variety of reef fish and other marine life.
In 2005, &Beyond worked with the Zanzibar Department of Fisheries and members of local Zanzibari fishing communities to form the Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area (MIMCA). In addition to other measures, this protected area officially demarcated specific areas for snorkelling, diving and fishing. The agreement also resulted in the introduction of a daily recreational fee for the use of these areas. The revenue generated by this levy was used to fund local community projects and benefit local fishermen.
One of the main objectives of the establishment of MIMCA was to reduce the incidence of net fishing in the shallow waters off the coral reefs and encourage fishing for fewer and larger species further out, in deeper waters. Several measures were introduced to encourage this practice.
The boundaries of MIMCA have now been extended to include a far larger portion of the Zanzibar coastline.
&Beyond continues to work with local villagers to implement localised and sustainable conservation plans, as well as to implement more effective netting techniques that don’t damage the reefs.
A decade of leopard research
As a direct result of the most extensive leopard research ever conducted in the world, the leopard population at &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve is now stable at 30 resident …
As a direct result of the most extensive leopard research ever conducted in the world, the leopard population at &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve is now stable at 30 resident adults. At the onset of the project there were only an estimated 15 to 20 resident cats due to the leopard mortality rates, the majority of which were caused by humans.
This increase in population density is the result of the findings and measures implemented as a result of the MunYaWana Leopard Project, a collaboration between &Beyond and Panthera, a USA-based philanthropic association focused on the conservation of the world’s 37 species of wild cats.
Regulations for sustainable leopard trophy hunting and a stricter system of permits for the control of problem animals were set up as a result of the study, resulting in a decrease in annual mortality rates from 40 to a more natural 13%. The success of the project can also be attributed to the introduction of a leopard management programme for cattle farmers and ranchers, providing them with training and support in alternative means of protecting their livestock from predators like leopard.
The research project has also studied the illegal persecution of leopards through snaring, poisoning and illegal shooting, as well as the trade in leopard skins. The team has studied the use of these skins within Zulu culture and the Shembe religion and has developed a low-cost fake fur that may alleviate the pressure on wild leopard populations. Phinda has imported 750 of these fake skins to introduce them to church leadership and have recently secured funds from Panthera to import and donate another 4 000 to church followers.
Suni at &Beyond Mnemba Island in Zanzibar
The tiny suni antelope were originally brought to &Beyond Mnemba Island from Jozani Forest with the aim of diversifying and increasing the population of these rare little animals. Life has …
The tiny suni antelope were originally brought to &Beyond Mnemba Island from Jozani Forest with the aim of diversifying and increasing the population of these rare little animals. Life has been so good for the suni on Mnemba, where they have no natural predators, that they have been breeding twice, rather than once, every year. With numbers increasing so rapidly, periodical relocations of the species have ensured that there is enough space and food for the suni. Over the years, more than 250 suni have been moved to 13 sites throughout Zanzibar.
Suni numbers remain ‘carefully monitored and recently 15 new individuals were introduced onto the island to diversify the gene pool.
Monitoring of Phinda Private Game Reserve’s birds of prey
As predators at the top of the food chain, eagles and other raptors are important indicators of ecosystem health. As a means of monitoring the full recovery of &Beyond Phinda Private Game …
As predators at the top of the food chain, eagles and other raptors are important indicators of ecosystem health. As a means of monitoring the full recovery of &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve as a wild landscape, senior rangers are engaged in locating nest sites and documenting the breeding success of eagles, vultures, hawks and owls. This project is part of a regional study under the direction of the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Bird of Prey Working Group.
Rhinos Without Borders
Rhinos Without Borders Rhinos Without Borders is an initiative aimed at combatting the scourge of rhino poaching in Africa. The project was born out of the first ever private game …
Rhinos Without Borders
Rhinos Without Borders is an initiative aimed at combatting the scourge of rhino poaching in Africa.
The project was born out of the first ever private game reserve donation of rhino to another country, during which &Beyond translocated six white rhino from &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve in South Africa to Botswana’s Okavango Delta. Facilitated in partnership with RHINO FORCE in 2013, this conservation coup was generously funded by lead sponsor Motorite Administrators.
In 2015 alone, South Africa lost more than a devastating 1 175 rhino to illegal poaching, with a rhino killed every seven hours. More of these magnificent animals are now being lost to poachers every year than there are being born. &Beyond believes by carrying out translocations and diversifying rhino nucleus nodes, &Beyond is playing are fundamental role in securing the ongoing survival of endangered species and this project aims to increase Africa’s dwindling rhino populations for future generations to enjoy. The Okavango Delta has proven to be a successful rhino relocation habitat and Botswana has a strong security and monitoring framework in place, with the country’s military helping to protect the endangered species.
After years of negotiation and planning, the initial translocation of the Rhinos Without Borders project was begun in early 2013 with the full support of the Botswana Rhino Management Committee.
As part of the process of transferring skills and preparing for the arrival of the rhino, &Beyond provided intensive tracking and monitoring training for game scouts from Botswana, held at Phinda Private Game Reserve. The game scouts were familiarised with the use of the satellite collars and tracking equipment intended to monitor the movement and behaviour of the six rhino after their release. A portion of this equipment, as well as anti-poaching uniforms and binoculars, was supplied by the Chipembere Rhino Foundation.
With all six of the translocated rhino thriving in their new habitat, in 2014 &Beyond partnered with Great Plains Conservation to move more than an additional hundred rhino from South Africa to Botswana. This project, which is expected to run over a number of years, calls on all members of the travel industry to join hands in order to make a difference. With over USD 8 million required to cover the costs of the project, both &Beyond and Great Plains have embarked on a number of fundraising activities. Thanks to generous donations from around the world, the translocation of further batches of rhino has been successfully completed from South Africa, by air, and the rhino have been safely released in their new habitat.
Continuous funds are being raised to move further batches of rhino to undisclosed destinations within Botswana.
For more information or to donate to the cause, please visit www.rhinoswithoutborders.com
The challenge of disease-free buffalo
By 1995, a great deal of the animal reintroduction into &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve had been completed. However, research into the history of the area revealed that this particular …
By 1995, a great deal of the animal reintroduction into &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve had been completed. However, research into the history of the area revealed that this particular region was once home to thousands of free-roaming buffalo. The large and heavy buffalo play an important role in land management too. Because of their size and weight, they break up the soil, stimulating the recycling of nutrients back into the grounds. As Phinda was made up of degraded farmlands where the soils had been depleted, buffalo would be instrumental in improving the carrying capacity of the land. &Beyond decided to take on the challenge.
Buffalo carry diseases that affect cattle, so, in order to protect cattle farmers, their movements are strictly controlled. Legislation at the time did not permit for the establishment of new buffalo populations. However, after six years of negotiation with national veterinary authorities and consultation with local farmers, in 1997 &Beyond was eventually granted permission to introduce buffalo to Phinda. No sooner was this in place than bovine tuberculosis was discovered in the buffalo population at nearby Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve, from where we had planned to source our buffalo. Reluctant to give up on our vision for buffalo, we simply pioneered a new protocol to ensure that any animals released onto our land were disease-free. This involved the movement of the animals to Phinda, followed by them being placed in specialised holding pens known as bomas for twelve to eighteen months. During this time, each buffalo underwent a succession of blood tests to ensure that they were TB-free.
At last the momentous day came when the buffalo were released onto the reserve and Phinda finally had its Big Five in 1998. The reserve herd has grown so well that Phinda now has over 300 buffalo, with well over a thousand tuberculosis-free animals relocated to other wildlife areas.
Support of anti-poaching team
An anti-poaching team comprising members of the local community have been provided with logistical support and uniforms, in order to limit the illegal hunting of wildlife within the Klein’s Camp …
An anti-poaching team comprising members of the local community have been provided with logistical support and uniforms, in order to limit the illegal hunting of wildlife within the Klein’s Camp concession. Close and sympathetic liaison is essential in this border area where Maasai pastoralists move freely between Tanzania and Kenya.
Oceans Without Borders
With an increasing number of factors affecting the health of the world’s marine resources, and experts predicting the collapse of global fisheries by 2048, &Beyond is expanding its focus on wildlife conservation …
With an increasing number of factors affecting the health of the world’s marine resources, and experts predicting the collapse of global fisheries by 2048, &Beyond is expanding its focus on wildlife conservation to include the protection and sustainability of our seas with Oceans Without Borders – a call to preserving our marine eco-systems.
Building on the positive influence it extends over more than 9 million acres of protected wildlife land, &Beyond has recently increased its portfolio of exclusive island lodges to now encompass, &Beyond Mnemba Island, off the coast of Zanzibar, &Beyond Benguerra Island, in Mozambique’s Bazaruto Archipelago and &Beyond Vamizi Island in the Quirimbas Archipelago. All of these incredible destinations are situated within protected marine areas and boast a strong conservation focus.
Why has &Beyond founded Oceans Without Borders?
By connecting these three destinations, Oceans Without Borders will play a significant role in the conservation of 2 000 kilometres (1 243 miles) of wild African coastline.
- Care of the oceans falls within &Beyond’s core ethos of Care of the Land, Care of the Wildlife, Care of the People. This three-pronged approached has helped us achieve exceptional results with our conservation projects on land and we are confident it will help us attain the same successes in terms of marine conservation.
- The success of our land-based conservation model has involved focussing on communities and their development as a strategy to ensure their buy-in for conservation and to mitigate their potential impact on the environment. Once community relationships have been established, we have been able to carry out focussed research projects on the reserves.
- Thanks to the success of this proven model, we have decided to implement a similar approach for marine conservation. &Beyond has engaged with the local fishing communities living near each of our island lodges in the belief that it essential for us to understand these people, whose livelihoods are largely dependent on the ocean.
- With three island lodges in our portfolio, marine conservation can now receive the same focus as land-based conservation projects.
- &Beyond Mnemba Island, &Beyond Benguerra Island and &Beyond Vamizi Island are all situated within protected marine areas and boast a strong conservation focus. By connecting these three destinations, Oceans Without Borders will play a significant role in the conservation of 2 000 kilometres (1 243 miles) of wild African coastline.
Oceans Without Borders Focus Areas
&Beyond has always believed that the land (or oceans), the people and the animals are inextricably intertwined. Just as ecotourism and the conservation of resources are vital for the future and prosperity of their people, so the support of those people is critical to protecting threatened ecosystems, endangered species and the precious biodiversity of the land and the oceans. Our conservation projects on land have been so successful because they have involved the people who live near the conservation areas, giving them a stake in the preservation of these resources.
Ironically, the very communities that rely the most closely on marine resources often pose the biggest threat to those very same resources. For this reason, at all three of our island lodges, our most immediate focus will be on reducing the local communities’ dependence on the ocean and giving them a stake in the preservation of the marine world.
- Education is a strong focus at all three lodges, with local communities taught how to ensure the survival of fish resources in the surrounding reefs.
- Working with our community development partners, Africa Foundation and Friends of Vamizi, &Beyond focuses on small business development as an alternative source of income to fishing.
- By helping to create vegetable gardens and farms, we attempt to set up alternative food sources for local communities to lessen their dependence on marine resources.
Monitoring and Research
Even in areas where marine resources are currently protected, monitoring and research is crucial to set a baseline which can be referenced over time to identify any potential threats in order to understand their impact. This then allows steps to be taken to minimise this impact and mitigate the threats.
While each lodge and their applicable partners will run their own initiatives, a coordinated project will consolidate findings. Although research is performed at each destination, no comparisons have previously been undertaken.
WHAT ARE WE MONITORING?
- Coral reefs are a vital indicator of the health of the earth’s oceans and are increasingly threatened around the world.
- The reefs at each destination are currently monitored by various partners of Oceans Without Borders
- We are investigating the best means of monitoring whale migration routes at all three islands. As conditions differ vastly between the three destinations, the effectiveness of using whale sonar equipment at each island to identify whale pods by sound is being evaluated.
- We are also looking into using hydrophones to record whale songs to identify the movements of individuals.
- At the lodges where whales are frequently spotted, we can involve our guests in using photo identification to help track their movements.
- Turtle nesting is currently monitored at Vamizi and Mnemba.
- &Beyond Vamizi Island is home to the oldest and only ongoing turtle monitoring project in northern Mozambique, which is managed by one of the longest-standing turtle monitoring programmes in East Africa. A dedicated team of Conservation Monitors records data and tags the turtles with a unique number that allows their movements to be tracked.
- &Beyond Mnemba Island is the only protected nesting site for the endangered green turtle in Zanzibar and one of few in the whole of Tanzania. &Beyond staff monitor turtle nests, protecting the eggs, hatchlings and the mother, and share their data with research organisations, as well as the government of Zanzibar.
Our Impact: The Protection of Endangered Species
With climate change, pollution and habitat loss all putting an increased strain on the world’s marine species, &Beyond believes that it is now more important than ever to protect the marine life in the oceans that lie off our island lodges.
- &Beyond Mnemba Island is home to the Ader’s duiker, the rarest antelope species in Africa.
- The numbers of the antelope have more than quadrupled since the introduction of five duiker to Mnemba in 2005, with an estimated 35 duiker currently living on the island.
- &Beyond is collecting data to improve the breeding programme and to work out the best population size to ensure the long-term survival of the duiker and the health of the island.
- A breeding project for these endangered antelope is run at&Beyond Mnemba Island.
- More than 300 have since been translocated from Mnemba to create new or boost existing populations in other parks.
- The number of suni has been carefully monitored and reduced by means of translocation to ensure that it does not impact on the Ader’s duiker breeding project
- &BeyondMnemba Island is home to a small but stable population of these largest of land crabs.
- Very little is known about coconut crabs and the island was home to the first study on them to be conducted in Africa.
- &Beyond Benguerra Island is home to the only population of the endangered dugong along the east coast of Africa, about 250 animals.
- Law enforcement and research on the island is managed by ANAC, the National Parks authority.
- Fishing nets and community fishing pose the single greatest threat to the dugong. &Beyond’s strategy to counter this is to work with local communities on establishing alternative sources of food and livelihoods other than fishing, thereby reducing the use of the nets.
- We are working with the local communities and the Africa Foundation on identifying the needs of the community and creating solutions. Vegetable gardens are already being created to solve some of these issues and we are looking at finding alternative protein sources for the local people.
GREY REEF SHARKS
- &BeyondVamizi island is home to one of the very few congregations of grey reef sharks on the east coast of Africa.
- All the sharks in the congregation are mature females and it is likely this behaviour has to do with breeding.
- Vamizi is tagging the sharks and recording their movements to research this phenomenon.
- Purchase an Oceans Without Borders bracelet, available at all &Beyond Safari Shops, to contribute towards Conservation Lessons at one of &Beyond’s island lodges.
- Purchase an Oceans Without Borders turtle mascot, available at all &Beyond Safari Shops, to contribute towards monitoring and research projects at one of &Beyond’s island lodges.
- Go to the Friends of Vamizi conservation pages.
&Beyond Vamizi Island conservation & research
Conservation has been a strong driver at &Beyond Vamizi Island even before its six luxury villas were opened, with a Conservation Team present on the island from 2005. Home to one of …
Conservation has been a strong driver at &Beyond Vamizi Island even before its six luxury villas were opened, with a Conservation Team present on the island from 2005. Home to one of the world’s great marine archipelagos, this entire area is under threat. Along with the Vamizi conservation team, &Beyond uses our influence and expertise to protect it, focusing on reef conservation and on creating safe migratory routes for the endangered species that travel this coastline, from turtles to humpback whales.
Vamizi is renowned as a breeding site for green turtles, providing guests with the opportunity to see these magnificent creatures laying their eggs or the hatchlings making their first trip to the ocean’s edge. Supported by an on-site conservation team for more than ten years, the careful preservation of the reefs surrounding Vamizi has led to one of the dive sites accessed from the island, Neptune’s Arm, being recognised as one of the top scuba sites in the world.
Black rhino range expansion project
In a joint project with WWF, the Ezemvelo KZN-Wildlife Black Rhino Range Expansion Project selected &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve as the first release site for 16 black rhinos in 2004. The …
In a joint project with WWF, the Ezemvelo KZN-Wildlife Black Rhino Range Expansion Project selected &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve as the first release site for 16 black rhinos in 2004. The endangered rhinos have thrived in their new home, providing further evidence of the successful restoration of farmlands into prime wildlife habitat. Ecotourists frequently observe the black rhinos on &Beyond Phinda game drives and the reserve celebrated the birth of the first baby rhino in August 2006.
Monitoring of leopard and other wildlife
Following the example of other &Beyond safari lodges, guides at Klein’s Camp have honed the skill of tracking and approaching leopards in such a way that these shy and elusive cats are …
Following the example of other &Beyond safari lodges, guides at Klein’s Camp have honed the skill of tracking and approaching leopards in such a way that these shy and elusive cats are relaxed in the presence of game-viewing vehicles. Individual recognition of territorial leopards is now possible and the movements, diet and behaviour of these animals is carefully documented.
Monitoring of olive baboons and other wildlife
Lake Manyara National Park is home to several large troops of Olive Baboon and these primates have been the subject of monitoring work conducted by senior Lake Manyara Tree Lodge …
Lake Manyara National Park is home to several large troops of Olive Baboon and these primates have been the subject of monitoring work conducted by senior Lake Manyara Tree Lodge guides. &Beyond guides work closely with Manyara National Parks rangers and warden.
Coconut crab at &Beyond Mnemba Island in Zanzibar
Lion reintroduction research
Prior to &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve’s establishment in 1990, resident populations of lions were last recorded in Maputaland in 1938. Between May 1992 and January 2003, 15 lions were released into …
Prior to &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve’s establishment in 1990, resident populations of lions were last recorded in Maputaland in 1938. Between May 1992 and January 2003, 15 lions were released into the Reserve. Research conducted to determine the success and failures of the reintroduction has recently been completed, providing valuable information to the conservation world and paving the way for more incredible victories.
Monitoring of leopard in the Munyawana Conservancy
In order to establish the population density and dynamics of leopard at &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve and adjacent properties, a number of individuals have been radio-collared for satellite tracking. A full …
In order to establish the population density and dynamics of leopard at &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve and adjacent properties, a number of individuals have been radio-collared for satellite tracking. A full time researcher, working under the auspices of the World Conservation Society’s Global Carnivore Program, documents the movements and interactions of leopards in the area, making use of remote digital camera trapping technology. This is the first serious study of leopard ecology in a matrix of protected areas and hunting concessions.
The giants of the bush, elephants are one of Africa’s most iconic and magnificent wild animals. However, when confined in a defined nature reserve, they are also capable of causing …
The giants of the bush, elephants are one of Africa’s most iconic and magnificent wild animals. However, when confined in a defined nature reserve, they are also capable of causing major environmental changes should their numbers increase too dramatically. With contained populations, low mortality rates and high growth rates, most game reserves are faced with the challenge of ensuring that elephant numbers do not exceed carrying capacity. At &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve the growth of the elephant population is being managed through a non-invasive method of contraception called immunocontraception.
The contraceptive vaccine, which is not based on steroids and therefore runs no risk of altering the animals’ behaviour, is administered to female elephants three times in the initial year of use, followed by an annual booster shot. The vaccine is remotely delivered through the use of darts shot from vehicles or helicopters, which means that there is no need to handle or sedate the animals, thus eliminating stress to the beasts and reducing the cost of treatment. Extensive research has shown no long-term effect on the elephants’ health or their social behaviour. The contraceptive effects of the vaccine can also be easily reversed by omitting the annual booster shot, with female elephants then regaining their fertility. Moreover, the vaccine is safe for other wildlife and does not contaminate the environment or the drinking water in any way.
At &Beyond Phinda the vaccine is used in conjunction with a stringent elephant management plan. Female elephant are vaccinated only after having had one calf and the object of the programme is not to decrease elephant numbers but to slow their growth to an appropriate level.
Monitoring of birds of prey and other wildlife
Guides at &Beyond Grumeti are engaged in the long-term monitoring of eagles and vultures, as well as the troops of black and white colobus monkeys that live in the riverine forest along …
Guides at &Beyond Grumeti are engaged in the long-term monitoring of eagles and vultures, as well as the troops of black and white colobus monkeys that live in the riverine forest along the Grumeti River. Resident lion prides have been the subject of studies by our guides. These data and observation have been published by &Beyond and presented to the Serengeti Research Institute at Seronera.
Gaur relocation in India
In February 2011, &Beyond was at the forefront of the groundbreaking translocation of 19 gaur (Indian bison) at Bandhavgarh National Park in India. The project saw the first successful reversal …
In February 2011, &Beyond was at the forefront of the groundbreaking translocation of 19 gaur (Indian bison) at Bandhavgarh National Park in India. The project saw the first successful reversal of a local extinction by means of the mass translocation of wild animals in the country. It also laid the foundation for further specialised wildlife relocations in the central state of Madhya Pradesh, including the subsequent movement of another 31 gaur in January 2012 by Indian wildlife authorities.
The gaur project has had substantial benefits, not only for the future of the species but for active wildlife management in India. The success of reversing a local extinction is measured by how well the new population does in its new environment. Despite tiger-inflicted mortalities, the gaur herd has steadily grown over the years, with the birth of calves bringing the total number of animals to more than 70.
Working with Tanzania National Parks
&Beyond has developed a close relationship with Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), sharing our resources and professional expertise as far as possible. Les Carlisle, Group Conservation Manger at &Beyond, lent his …
&Beyond has developed a close relationship with Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA), sharing our resources and professional expertise as far as possible. Les Carlisle, Group Conservation Manger at &Beyond, lent his vast experience to the authorities when he participated in the creation of the new Serengeti National Park management plan, which reviewed tourism zones within the park, amongst other things. Guides at &Beyond Grumeti report also any observed transgressions, including poaching incidents, to TANAPA staff. &Beyond Grumeti has proposed measures for the control of the invasive water lettuce, which infests the Grumeti and Kanyanja Rivers.